الأحد، 26 يونيو، 2011

دراسة موثقة بأحصائيات توضح ان الدين يتقلص تأثيره فى أمريكا عبر التعليم الجيد و التثقيف














فى مقالة كنت كتبتها من فترة بعنوان ( لماذا الأديان فى طريقها الى الأنقراض ؟ ) توضح ان الدول التى تتركز فيها أمكانية الحصول على المعلومات بسهولة و يسر هى التى يتزايد فيها معدلات الإلحاد.

و هذا الفيديو الذى وجدته مؤخراً على اليوتيوب بتاريخ 25 يونيو 2011 يوضح نفس فكرة المقالة السابقة و لكن فى دولة الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية تحديداً.

و خلاصة الدراسة تؤكد على ان زيادة معدل التعليم و التثقيف يقلل من التأثير الديني.


أتركم مع الفيديو ، و الترجمة أسفله ........









0:00
I've chosen an unusual paper for my next journal club discussion. It's a sociological study
0:06
inspired by qdragon's recent response to the Discovery Institute. The DI are asserting
0:12
that there is a strong atheist bias among biologists, and that this bias creates an
0:17
atmosphere hostile to theists, who account for only 10% of biology professors.
0:22
I think this is wrong on several levels, and I want to present this survey data in support
0:27
of why I think so.
0:29
The title is "The Religiosity of American College and University Professors", the authors
0:35
are sociologists from George Mason and U of BC and it presents an analysis of a 2006 survey
0:43
of professors from across the United States. I'm going to skip on the usual areas of the
0:48
paper such as abstract and introduction, and I'm going to only briefly describe the methods,
0:54
because the interesting points here are in the Results or Data section, and the authors'
0:59
Conclusion.
1:00
The survey subjects were selected using existing databases of degree granting institutions,
1:05
where one professor from each category of study was selected at each institution. The
1:11
data were stratified to include both elite and non-elite education settings, from Harvard
1:16
and MIT to community colleges. Elite status was determined by the US News and World Report
1:22
rankings.
1:24
Medical and law schools were excluded, as the purpose was to focus on undergraduate
1:28
degree granting institutions. This will obviously exclude the bulk of medical researchers, who
1:34
work at medical centers or schools and research institutions, rather than at 4 year undergrad
1:37
institutions.
1:39
The response rate was 51 percent, which is excellent for this type of survey, and the
1:44
total number of cases used is 1,417. They randomly conducted phone surveys with 100
1:52
nonresponders to determine if there was any bias in responders.
1:57
Here are the results: Table 1 is a belief in God survey. The selection
2:01
of responses was different from studies I've seen in the past, but strong atheists account
2:06
for 9.8 percent, agnostic atheists another 13.1 percent, and an interesting 19.2 percent
2:15
believe in a higher power, which could include pantheists, diests and other groups that classically
2:21
don't believe in a personal god. A good 51.5 percent of professors do believe in God, though,
2:28
even if they admit to some doubt.
2:30
Table 2 is interesting, as it breaks out Table 1 by disciplinary field. The most godless
2:36
groups are psychology and mechanical engineers by far, and the most religious are in finance,
2:43
accounting and elementary education. I'll leave it up to you to pore over the data,
2:49
I want to move on to Table 4, which compares religious orientation by institution type
2:54
and by discipline.
2:55
Note that the non-elite doctoral degree granting schools actually had the highest non-religious
3:01
responses, and the elite institutions show a broad distribution of different views. In
3:07
the disciplines, experimental sciences show the highest non-religious rates, but the social
3:12
sciences and humanities have similar numbers. Only the health fields show a substantial
3:17
proportion of traditional religious views.
3:20
Table 5 shows that the largest religious affiliation of professors is none, with 31.2% claiming
3:28
no particular group. 15.9% are Catholic, followed by the usual slew of different flavors of
3:34
Christian or Jewish and a few Buddhists, Muslims and Hindus thrown in. I'm willing to bet that
3:40
this same result would not be obtained if medical schools or research institutions were
3:45
included in the survey, where Hindus and Buddhists are very heavily represented.
3:50
Table 6 is regressions coefficients between a variable and a survey result. Negative values
3:56
here represent an inverse relationship, positives a direct. Stars indicate significant correlations.
4:05
For example, if you have a PhD, you are significantly less likely to claim a religious affiliation.
4:13
If you are married, you are more likely to attend church, but if you are white, you are
4:17
less likely. If you are from the NorthEast or West, you are less likely to accept the
4:22
literal truth of the Bible. And it you are a researcher of any kind, you are very, very
4:28
likely not to hold traditional religious views.
4:31
I leave it to you to read the full conclusion of the authors. I've chosen just a few of
4:36
my favorites: "But the hypothesis that the university is
4:40
a secular institution because of the irreligious tendencies of the faculty does not withstand
4:47
empirical scrutiny: it is a secular institution despite the fact that most of
4:53
its key personnel are themselves religious believers."
4:57
Here's another great one: "In light of our findings, one such [secularizing]
5:00
mechanism that might be hypothesized to existóthat students become more secular as their atheist
5:06
professors call into question the value of religionóseems implausible as a broad generalization.
5:12
If anything, our finding that the most secular professors are those focused primarily on
5:17
researchóa minority of all professors ó would suggest that the bulk of the teaching
5:21
function in American colleges and universities is being carried out by academics who are
5:26
personally sympathetic to religion, albeit not in its most traditional forms."
5:32
So, the old narrative about the evil atheist professor corrupting the youth of America
5:37
into godless socialist intellectualism isn't well supported by the demographic survey data.
5:43
Most professors are religious, just not to the same degree or in the same way as America
5:49
as a whole. Married professors are significantly more likely to regularly attend church and
5:55
professors of applied health like nursing or business professors are also more likely
6:00
to be traditionally religious, while professors with a doctoral level degree are less likely
6:06
to be religious.
6:08
In just the elite institutions, Only 1% of professors describe themselves as "born again",
6:13
while 13% describe themselves as Jewish, which is the opposite trend at non-elite institutions
6:21
like community colleges, where Born again Christians may represent up to a quarter of
6:25
the professors.
6:28
Only 5.7 percent of all responders were Biblical literalists, 39.5% believed it to be divinely
6:36
inspired, with 48.3% believing the Bible to be ìan ancient book of fables, legends, history,
6:43
and moral precepts.î
6:46
It's true that researchers and physical science professors, who rely heavily on empirical
6:51
data and evidence in their daily work, are a bit less likely to be accepting of a faith
6:56
based religious belief, and much less likely to accept biblical accounts as literally true.
7:02
If the Discovery Institute believes that studying biology and the modern evolutionary synthesis
7:08
automatically leads to atheism, I think they need to explain what about studying psychology
7:14
or sociology or even engineering leads people down that same path. The data really suggests
7:21
that the higher echelons of learning and education are inherently less religious or at least
7:26
less traditionally religious.
7:29
I'm sure that's not the narrative they want. Fortunately for them, they show an amazing
7:34
ability to live in their own imagined reality, rather than the world you or I actually inhabit.
7:41
Thanks for watching.

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تحديث بتاريخ 6 نوفمبر 2011

للأمانة العلمية ، لقد وجدت اليوم دراسة تناقض الدراسة المذكورة أعلاه عن تأثير التعليم فى الأيمان الديني بالولايات المتحدة الأمريكية

University of Nebraska-Lincoln (2011, August 8). Education affects Americans' religiosity -- but not how you might think. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 6, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110808124245.htm

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